If you or someone you know is looking for help, please visit these sites.
A comprehensive health resource for Native youth, by Native youth, providing content and stories about the topics that matter most to them. We strive to promote holistic health and positive growth in our local communities and nation at large. Visit >

Center for Native American Youth
The Center for Native American Youth is dedicated to improving the health, safety and overall well-being of Native American youth through communication, policy development and advocacy. Visit CNAY website >

National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition
The Center was formed after a national symposium in 2011. Leaders from the U.S. and Canada came together to discuss the Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the need for such a process in the U.S. National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition website >

National Coalition Against Racism in Sports and Media
The National Coalition Against Racism in Sports and Media exists to fight the powerful influence of major media who choose to promulgate messages of oppression. National Coalition Against Racism in Sports and Media website >


Beyond Individual and Collective Trauma: Intergenerational Transmission, Psychoanalytic Treatment, and the Dynamics of Forgiveness (2013 – Clara

Narrating Trauma: On the Impact of Collective Suffering (2013 – Ron Eyerman, Jeffrey C. Alexander, Butler Breese)

Transforming Historical Trauma Through Dialogue (2013 – David S. Derezotes)

Kill the Indian, Save the Man: The Genocidal Impact of American Indian Residential Schools (2004 – Ward Churchill)

Trans-Generational Trauma: Passing It On (2014 – Thomas Hodge)

Native American Postcolonial Psychology (1995 – Eduardo Duran; Bonnie Duran)

Remnants of a Shattered Past (2012 – Sharon Brunner)

Intergenerational Cycles of Trauma and Violence: An Attachment and Family Systems Perspective (2014 – Pamela C. Alexander)

Trauma and Resilience in American Indian and African American Southern History (2013 – Anthony S. Parent, Ulrike Wiethaus)

Between Hope and Despair: Pedagogy and the Remembrance of Historical Trauma (2000 Roger J. Simon, Sharon Rosenberg, Claudia Eppert)

The Ethics of Remembering and the Consequences of Forgetting: Essays on Trauma, History, and Memory (2014 – Michael O’Loughlin, Claude Barbre)

Breaking Cycles of Repetition: A Global Dialogue on Historical Trauma and Memory (2015 – Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela)

Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity (2004 – Jeffrey C. Alexander, Ron Eyerman, Bernard Giesen, Neil J. Smelser, Piotr Sztompka)

Trauma and Psychiatry: The Role of Individual and Transgenerational Traumatisation in the Causation of Psychobiological Illness (1998 – Theo K. De Graff)

Fragments of Trauma and the Social Production of Suffering: Trauma, History, and Memory (2014 – Michael O’Loughlin, Marilyn Charles)

Intergenerational Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma (2010 – Yael Danieli)

Genocide and Mass Violence: Memory, Symptom, and Recovery (2014 – Devon E. Hinton, Alexander L. Hinton)

Memory, Narrative and Forgiveness: Perspectives on the Unfinished Journeys of the Past (2009 – Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela, Chris N. Van der Merwe)

Haunting Legacies: Violent Histories and Transgenerational Trauma (2010 – Gabriele Schwab)

I Carry Your Heart in My Heart: Family Constellations in Prison (2009 – Dan Booth Cohen)

Research Articles

Intergenerational trauma: Convergence of multiple processes among First Nations people of Canada.  Journal of Aboriginal – Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2009). Health 5(3), 6-47.

Liberation psychology as the path toward healing cultural soul wounds. Journal of Counseling & Development – Duran, E., Firehammer, J., & Gonzalez, J. (2008).  86(3), 288- 295. doi:10.1002/j.1556- 6678.2008.tb00511.x

What are the Predictors of Volatile Substance Use in an Urban Community of Adults Who are Homeless? Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health – DeBoer, T., Distasio, J., Isaak, C. A., Roos, L. E., Bolton, S. L., Medved, M., & Sareen, J. (2015).  34(2), 1-15.

Intergenerational trauma and Aboriginal women: Implications for mental health during pregnancy. First Peoples Child & Family Review – Roy, A. (2014).   9(1), 7-21.

Historical trauma in American Indian/Native Alaska communities.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence – Evans-Campbell, T. (2008).  23(3), pp. 316- 338.

Turning around the intergenerational impact of residential schools on aboriginal people: Implications for health policy and practice.  Canadian Journal of Nursing Research – Smith, D., Varcoe, C., & Edwards, N. (2005).  37(4), 38-60.

The impact of stressors on second generation Indian residential school survivors. Transcultural Psychiatry – Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2011).  48(4), 367-391. doi:10.1177/136346151141 0240

The intergenerational effects of Indian residential schools: Implications for the concept of historical trauma. Transcultural Psychiatry – Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2014). 51(3), 320-338. doi:10.1177/136346151350 3380

Reflections on intergenerational trauma: Healing as a critical intervention. First Peoples Child & Family Review – Quinn, A. (2007).  3(4), 72-82.

Substance use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Incorporating culture in an “indigenist” stress-coping paradigm”Public Health Reports – Walters, K., Simoni, J.M., Evans-Campbell T. (2002).  117(1), S104-S117.

Feasibility, acceptability, and initial findings from a community‐ based cultural mental health intervention for American Indian youth and their families. Journal of Community Psychology – Goodkind, J., LaNoue, M., Lee and Lance Freeland, C., & Freund, R. (2012).  40(4), 381-405. doi:10.1002/jcop.20517

Healing history? Aboriginal healing, historical trauma, and personal responsibility. Transcultur al psychiatry – Waldram, J. B. (2014).  51(3), 370- 386. doi:10.1177/136346151348 7671

Rethinking historical trauma: Narratives of resilience. Transcultural Psychiatry – Denham, A. R. (2008).  45(3), 391-414. doi:10.1177/136346150809 4673

Examining two facets of American Indian identity: Exposure to other cultures and the influence of historical trauma. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment – Weaver, H. N., & Heartz, M. Y. H. B. (1999).  2(1-2), 19-33.

Bodies don’t just tell stories, they tell histories. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race – Walters, K. L., Mohammed, S. A., Evans-Campbell, T., Beltrán, R. E., Chae, D. H., & Duran, B. (2011).  8(01), 179-189. doi:10.10170S1742058X11

Historical trauma, race-based trauma and resilience of indigenous peoples: A literature review. First Peoples Child & Family Review – Fast, E., & Collin-Vézina, D. (2010).   5(1), 126- 136.

Integrating trauma psychology and cultural psychology: Indigenous perspectives on theory, research, and practice. Traumatology – Hill, J. S., Lau, M. Y., & Sue, D. W. (2010).  16(4), 39- 47. doi:10.1177/153476561038 8303

Gender differences in the historical trauma response among the Lakota Journal of Health & Social Policy – Brave Heart, M.Y.H. (1999)  10(4), 1-21.

Intergenerational trauma from a mental health perspective.  Native Social Work Journal – Menzies, P. (2010).  7, 63-85.

The historical trauma response among natives and its relationship with substance abuse: A Lakota illustration.  Journal of Psychoactive Drugs – Brave Heart, M. Y. H. (2003).  35(1), 7-13.

“We’re Still in a Struggle” Diné Resilience, Survival, Historical Trauma, and Healing. Qualitative Health Research – Goodkind, J. R., Hess, J. M., Gorman, B., & Parker, D. P. (2012). 22(8), 1019-1036. doi:10.1177/104973231245 0324

Transforming cultural trauma into resilience.  Reclaiming Children and Youth – Brokenleg, M. (2012).  21(3), 9-13.

Historicizing historical trauma theory: Troubling the trans-generational transmission paradigm. Transcultural psychiatry – Maxwell, K. (2014).  51(3), 407-435. doi:10.1177/136346151453 1317

The cedar project: Historical trauma and vulnerability to sexual assault among young aboriginal women who use illicit drugs in two Canadian cities. Violence Against Women – Pearce, M. E., Blair, A. H., Teegee, M., Pan, S. W., Thomas, V., Zhang, H., Schechter, M. T., & Spittal, P. M. (2015).  21(3), 313- 329. doi:10.1177/1077801214568356

“The trauma experienced by generations past having an effect in their descendents”: Narrative and historical trauma among Inuit in Nunavut, Canada.  Transcultural Psychiatry – Crawford, A. (2014). 51(3), 339-369. doi:10.1177/136346151246 7161

Colonialism as a broader social determinant of health. The International Indigenous Policy Journal – Czyzewski, K. (2011).  2(1).

Blending aboriginal and western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in aboriginal peoples who live in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Harm Reduction Journal – Marsh, T. N., Coholic, D., Cote-Meek, S., & Najavits, L. M. (2015). 12(1).

Conceptualizing and measuring historical trauma among American Indian people. American journal of community psychology – Whitbeck, L. B., Adams, G. W., Hoyt, D. R., & Chen, X. (2004).  33(3-4), 119- 130. doi:10.1023/B:AJCP.000002 7000.77357.31